The Kheel Plan (aka Balancing Free Transit and Congestion Pricing in New York City ).

Zero-Fare Public Transport for Canberra  - Chris Emery, retired Professional Engineer 

American Public Transportation Association By reducing the growth in vehicle miles of travel,easing congestion and supporting more efficient land use patterns, public transportation can reduce harmful CO2 emissions by 37 million metric tons annually. These savings represent the beginning of public transportation’s potential contribution to national efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote energy conservation.

Residents Action Movement  Free & frequent public transport in Greater Auckland is the realistic antidote to car congestion, climate change and rising fares. It makes ecological and economic sense. On 23 January 2007, an Open Letter calling for a free buses trial was presented to the chief executive of Auckland Regional Transport Authority by a delegation from RAM – Residents Action Movement.

Price Matters Study  In this study, special emphasis will be given to free transit as a pricing option. Several cities, including Portland OR and Seattle WA, offer fare-free transit on bus and light rail lines within their central business districts. In New York City, the Staten Island Ferry is fare-free. This research effort will explore the benefits and costs of free transit throughout New York City and environs.

American Public Transportation Association  A two-adult “public transportation household” saves an average $6,251 every year, compared to an equivalent household with two cars and no access to public transportation service.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute Rail transit can improve mobility for non-drivers, reduce automobile travel and associated costs, and support more efficient land use patterns. As a result, communities with major rail transit systems tend to have less per capita traffic congestion, lower per capita traffic fatalities, lower road and parking facility costs, and consumer cost savings.

The Brookings Instituion Highway projects and new transit projects are treated very differently in federal legislation and policy. This results in a double standard with a relatively easy process for highway development and a difficult and complex process for transit.

Automobile Externalities and Policies -- Ian W. H. Parry, Margaret Walls, and Winston Harrington This paper discusses the nature, and magnitude, of externalities associated with automobile use, including local and global pollution, oil dependence, traffic congestion and traffic accidents. It then discusses current federal policies affecting these externalities, including fuel taxes, fuel-economy and emissions standards, and alternative fuel policies, summarizing, insofar as possible, the welfare effects of those policies. Finally, we discuss emerging pricing policies, including congestion tolls, and insurance reform, and we summarize what appears to be the appropriate combination of policies to address automobile externalities. ( )

Traffic Hierarchy  The current traffic hierarchy, with the car on top and with public transport, bikers and pedestrians at the bottom, manifests itself in the fact that these means of conveyance are given different amounts of space and resources. With the car on top of the traffic hierarchy we get a society built on automobility: a world where our lives, to a far too great extent, are steered by cars.